BioImmersion -- Therapeutic Food Supplements

Welcome Friends,

We invite you to contribute articles & research, thoughts & poems, analysis & solutions; to publish and converse with old and new friends, fellow world citizens, dedicated to bring peace into the chaos of the globe we call home. We have seeded the blog with some articles and thoughts to get the conversation going. The categories on the right will expand as our entries and foci evolve. Lets start writing and publishing!

Contact us about publishing to the blog: publish@bioimmersion.com.

  • Post Antibiotic Probiotic Dosing

    Dear Friends,

    Beta Glucan Synbiotic:  perfect post antibiotic therapeutic food.

    Oral antibiotics are very hard on our army of friendly lactic acid bacteria in our GI tract microbiome.  These friendly bacteria are killed alongside the pathogenic infection, and they must be replaced. The Beta Glucan High Potency Synbiotic is absolutely the perfect choice for this replenishing purpose. And here is why:

    It is well understood that the use of antibiotics can strip the GI tract membranes of its probiotic coating of friendly bacteria, leaving this most important one cell layer thick membrane vulnerable to further assault by pathogens.  There is a small window of time where we must recolonize the membrane.

    The newer Beta Glucan has a much higher count - it is indeed a potent probiotic. But more than that, it provides a critical component for the colonization- the best kind of fiber!

    The fibers are oat bran fiber with its beta glucan fibers, inulin soluble fibers derived from organic chicory root and red beetroot fiber. The oat fiber has only 0.02% oat gluten, and has proven to be very successful with gluten sensitive people.

    The beta glucan soluble fibers provide a fibrous home for the good bacteria within the mucous layer, facilitating their rapid reproduction and colonization of the GI tract membrane.

    The small amount of inulin provides a favorite and a more readily available fiber-food for the bacteria and is readily consumed by them resulting in their rapid growth and production of the beneficial SCFA (short chain fatty acids) which help in the healing of the GI tracts tight junctions and much more.

    The red beetroot provides both soluble and insoluble fiber and the most important flavonoid betalain which is a very powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory. It also supports liver function which is important after antibiotic therapy.

    The good bacteria are L. acidophilus, L rhamnosus, L. plantarum, S. thermophilus and B. longum.  All wonderful and powerful pedigreed strains that support a healthy GI tract microbiome—See the Beta Glucan technical brief for a more thorough discussion of this wonderful product.

    Sincerely yours,

    Seann Bardell
    BioImmersion.com

    Clinical Note:

    After your course of antibiotics take one heaping tablespoon of the Beta Glucan High Potency Synbiotic for two weeks. This provides a probiotic count of around 100 billion CFU plus around 5 grams of fiber. It can be taken with a glass of water, or in a smoothie. Kids love the taste. Continue this level of dosing for two weeks, through the window of recolonization, tapering off to a teaspoon after that time.

    As you know, because of the LDL cholesterol lowering effect with a two tablespoon daily dose of the beta Glucan, the American Heart Association has given their Healthy Heart Seal of Approval!  One more thing, if you take a tablespoon twice a day before your two largest meals it will slow down the absorption of carbohydrate into the blood stream.  This is great for glycemically challenged people. This is a multi tasking therapeutic food!

    This amazing little creature is a Fennec Fox who lives, as a nocturnal animal, in “of all places” the Sahara Desert.

    The Last Quiz Answer:

    Hyenas weigh anywhere from 110 to 190 lbs.  This beauty is a spotted hyena.  Their height is 2.3 to 2.6 ft. at the shoulder.  They live in the wild up to around 25 years.

    Hyenas are not members of the dog or catr families.  They are so unique that they have a family all their own, Hyaenidae.

    They have good hearing and sharp eyesight at night.  They are fast and can run for long distances without tiring.

     

     

    Green Facts

    Globe_Home 3
    Globe_Home 3"I would like to enter a dialogue with all people about our common home."  So begins the encyclical delivered to the world last week from Pope Francis.
    It was so beautiful.  He spared no words, and here you have the link to the whole talk in its title:  Revolution needed to combat climate change.
  • Phyto Power's Hormetic Effects

    Dear Friends,

    There is no question that organic farming methods create produce with more potent bioactives.  Exaulted methods such as permaculture, biodynamic farming and eco-agriculture are at the top of the list when is come to horticultural and agricultural excellence.

    Nature herself is the master farmer and when the geography is right she provides the mother load of nutrients.  Our wild crafted produce coming from Alaska provides a spectacular example.

    Dinstel et al in their 2013 research entitled,  The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest, which appeared in the International Journal of Circumpolar Health, observed that Alaska wild berries have extraordinarily high antioxidant levels.  They looked at blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries and highbush cranberries.

    Our Phyto Power is a powerful example of this phenomena of nature.  Each capsule contains 500mgs of blueberry (4 species), rosehip (three species) and dandelion (four species) all picked in the wilds of Alaska.  On analyses of their actives they are literally off the chart.  As much as ten times more potent than lower latitude produce.

    Our goal with the Phyto Power is to give you a broad spectrum of the extremely important phytonutrient category of flavonoids in your diet; and in two capsule you are getting the equivalent of eating a small handful of wild blueberries, 6 of the rosehips with seeds and all, and a cup of dandelion salad with flowers and roots.  Just imagine the powerful effects that this can have on priming your metabolism if taken on a regular basis.  This is how the native Alaskan Indian peoples do it, taking just small amounts of these very powerful berries on a regular basis, and they are very robust, very health and live longing people.

    Sincerely yours,

    Seann Bardell
    BioImmersion.com

    Clinical Note:

    Take two capsule of the Phyto Power daily.  You can feel the berries enlivening power in your body. The effect is hormetic.  Meaning they are hormone like- their messages for action are amplified even with small amounts taken in.  The flavonoids and other phytochemical within the Phyto Power's ingredients initiates cascades of metabolic pathways within our bodies. Such words as toning the body and priming the metabolism depicts the power potential of even small amounts of these really power foods—they are good medicine.

    This amazing little creature is a Fennec Fox who lives, as a nocturnal animal, in “of all places” the Sahara Desert.

    The Last Quiz Answer:

    We've been talking a lot about the communication between our human cells and the world of our microbiome. What about that magical communication mastered by some of us with our mammal family friends?

    Here is a heart warming video of an absolutely amazing communication between a very anger black panther and a very skilled animal whisperer. See the incredible story of How Diablo became Spirit.

     

    Green Facts

    Globe_Home 3

    Permaculture and Biodynamic Farming are farming methods that bring nature back center stage as our head teacher on how to move forward in feeding the world.   One of the biggest and best Permaculture sites in the US is Bullock's Homestead on Orcas Island.  And, one of the most established Biodynamic farms is on Lopez Island—both in my neighberhood of the San Juan Islands.

    I've had a first hand privilege in my youth of working with the American Master farmer Alan Chadwick who brought Rudolph Steiner's BioDyanamic Farming methods to the US.  His vegetable gardens were like jungles of vibrant life- truly magical.  There is a strong movement of young Americans going back to farming with nature —  Meet the greenhorns.

  • Diverticulitis and the Beta Glucan Synbiotic

    Dear Friends,

    Diverticulosis and Diverticular Disease:  What to do outside the hospital.

    By Artemis Morris ND

    Diverticulosis is a condition of bulging pockets of potential inflammation and infection. Diverticulitis may develop in the large intestine (colon), and is characterized by severe abdominal pain and fever.  These pockets, or diverticula, are common in the Western world but are rare in areas of Asia and Africa that are consuming a traditional high-fiber diet.  74 % of people over 80 years old have diverticular disease and the risk of developing these pockets increases with age, especially after 40 years old.1 You may have diverticulosis and not even know it since the symptoms can be mild (abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, mild bleeding) unless infection occurs. Infection with diverticulosis usually requires hospitalization and can present as severe abdominal pain. Fortunately, acute diverticulitis doesn’t need to reoccur, especially when changes in diet and supplementation are implemented along with conventional care. Outpatient treatment is safe and effective for approximately 90% of patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis and allows important costs saving to health systems without a negative influence on quality of life for patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis, and reduces health care costs by more than 60%.6

    The current standard of care in the US for acute diverticulitis is antibiotics and a low fiber/residue diet with a high fiber diet recommended later for prevention.  Some recent studies have brought standard of care with antibiotics under question, such as, the study by Lanas et al. (2013) in Spain.  Lanas et al.'s epidemiological study of 228 patients who received the antibiotic riflaximin with fiber or fiber alone, found that there was a 20% recurrence when receiving antibiotics and fiber and only a 10% recurrence when receiving fiber alone.2 Surgery may also not be the best option for patients. Tursi's (2012) study showed that 25% of patients who had elective surgery for diverticulitis experienced persistent abdominal symptoms.5

    The biggest risk factors for developing diverticular disease are a low fiber diet and history of constipation.  Chronic constipation can increase the pressure in pockets of the colon until they bulge, causing diverticuli, which is a weakening and herniation of the colon wall.  Addressing chronic constipation early on with diet changes and probiotics may also be preventative. The contributing factors to developing diverticular disease include diet, colonic wall structure, intestinal motility and possible genetic predisposition.2

    A Medline and Cochrane Database review of studies on diverticulitis between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2013 found that diverticulitis presents with altered gut motility, increased luminal pressure, and a disordered colonic microenvironment (microbiome). They concluded that studies demonstrate a lesser role for aggressive antibiotic or surgical intervention for chronic or recurrent diverticulitis than was previously thought necessary.So what do you do if antibiotics and surgery are not warranted? The role of probiotics and fiber along with dietary changes may be your best choice for treatment.

    25-30 grams a day of fiber is recommended by the ADA even though more clinical studies are still needed for diverticular disease. Fibers that are incompletely or slowly fermented by the microflora in the large intestine are best for treating constipation and preventing the development of diverticulosis and diverticulitis. The ADA asserts that “a diet adequate in fiber-containing foods is also usually rich in micronutrients and nonnutritive ingredients that have additional health benefits and a fiber-rich diet is associated with a lower risk of colon cancer.”9 A review article found that insoluble fiber, especially the cellulose in fruits and vegetables, may be especially important in preventing diverticulosis. The ADA's Manual of Clinical Dietetics states, “Fiber can lower postprandial intraluminal pressure, and although there is no evidence that decreasing the pressure will prevent diverticulitis, it is a rational therapy until a definitive answer is found”. 10

    Besides diet, the bacterial balance in the colon plays an essential role in the development of diverticulitis and diverticular disease. Probiotics, which are beneficial bacteria found in highest concentrations in the colon, can protect the gastrointestinal wall against infection, help promote normal stool development, and act a protective barrier to pathogenic bacteria. Tursi (2012) found that “probiotics inhibit pathogen adherence, improve mucosal defense by enhancing the integrity of tight junctions, decrease bacterial translocation, stimulate immunoglobulin A secretion in Peyer patches, enhance immune system activity by controlling the balance of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines, interfere with pathogen metabolism, and have the ability to restore balance to enteric flora, primarily by decreasing the number of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria.”5

    A double-blind placebo controlled trial of 210 patients receiving 10 days of treatment for 12 months found that a combination of mesalazine plus 24 billion active Lactobacillus case DG (0% reoccurence) was more effective than mesalazine alone (14% reoccurence) at preventing reappearance of abdominal pain for at least 24 hours. Furthermore, patients taking mesalazine alone has a similar results to patients taking the probiotic alone (13.7% vs 14.% respectively.)4 A study by Giaccari et al. (1993) using Lactobacillus sp. following rifaximin in 79 patients with colonic stenosis post-diverticulitis, found that most remained symptom-free for a period of one year. 7  Another study found that a combination of balsalazide and a broad-spectrum probiotic called VSL#3 was better than VSL#3 alone in preventing recurrence of diverticulitis, even though they were not statistical significance (73.33% versus 60%, P,0.1).8  The use of polybactertial lysate suspension has also shown promise in clinical trial of diverticulitis.

    Beta Glucan High Potency Synbiotic is one of my favorite products to use for diverticular disease because it is easy-to-use, it combines the best of both worlds in terms of prevention and management of diverticular disease, and is formulated with soluble and insoluble fiber prebiotics and probiotics.  It contains a broad spectrum probiotic, prebiotics, and fiber: 33 billion cfu/tbl of certified strains of pedigreed probiotic with Therapeutic Foods in a synbiotic formula of L. acidophilus, B. longum, L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, S. thermophilus and 5 grams of patented oat bran (75%) with high levels of beta glucan (10%), organic whole red beet root (15%) and organic inulin derived from chicory fiber (10%).  A patented heat shearing technology is used to liberate the soluble beta glucan fiber, while disabling phytate’s ability to block the absorption of minerals. Advanced freeze-drying technology is used to dry the remaining components.

    Inulin stimulates the production of Bifidobacterium species and is considered a soluble prebiotic fiber, which by definition, resist digestion in the human small intestine and reaches the colon where they are fermented by the gut microflora (preferentially consumed by the Bifido and Lactobacillus genuses. As was stated previously, both probiotics and soluble fibers such as inulin have been found to be beneficial in diverticular disease.

    The choice of beta-glucan fiber, derived from oats, has immunomodulating properties which may aid in further supporting a fortress of biofilm health in the gastrointestinal system. Beta-glucan, similar to the slippery oats from which it is derived, may act as a demulcent to the digestive tract, which can help to imbed the probiotics in the biofilm and build back the disrupted biofilm lining of the digestive tract that is essential for optimal gastrointestinal health.

    In addition to the safety and scientific support for the use of probiotics and fiber in diverticular disease, the most important reason why I have confidence in using Beta Gluten High Potency Synbiotic for my patients is the clinical benefit I have seen in my patients over time.  I have collected numerous case studies finding Beta-Glucan to be safe and effective in my patients with diverticular disease and would like to see more clinical studies on the subject to test my findings.  Most people also find the taste slightly sweet and pleasant and enjoy the convenience of adding 2 tbs of powder to water and drinking it before bed, rather than needing to swallow capsules.  The only types of patients which I am cautious in using Beta-Glucan are those with Celiac Disease since the beta glucans are derived from oats, which has negligible amounts of gluten (0.02%), but may sometimes find it to be incompatible due to cross-reactivity.

    While every patients' needs should be individualized, probiotics, prebiotics, and fiber is found to support a healthy biofilm, and in combination with an anti-inflammatory diet are essential components in restoring health and digestive function. The treatment will also relieve the intense pain and unpredictability that is a source of stress in patients with diverticular disease, and very importantly, will help to prevent reoccurrence of acute symptoms.

    Inflammation in diverticulitis can be detected by testing fecal calprotectin.  Future studies aimed at testing products, such as Beta Glucan High Potency Synbiotic, that combine probiotics, prebiotics, and fiber may be a novel and safe approach to addressing diverticular disease in the future.

    References:

    1.  Diverticulitis Diet.http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/diverticulitis-diet. Reviewed by Jennifer Robinson, MD on January 24, 2015. Accessed on April 30th, 2015.

    2.  Lanas A, Ponce J, Bignamini A, Mearin F. Rifaximin plus fiber supplementation
    versus fiber supplementation alone to prevent diverticulitis recurrence: a proofof-concept study. Digestive and Liver Disease. 2013;45:103–8.

    3.  Arden M. Morris, Scott E. Regenbogen, Karin M. Hardiman, Samantha Hendren . Sigmoid Diverticulitis: A Systematic Review. JAMA. 2014 ;311(3): 287-297, <http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=49598939BED8B820649B>

    4. Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Elisei W, Picchio M, Forti G, Pianese G, et. al.  Randomised clinical trial: mesalazine and/or probiotics in maintaining remission of symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease – a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study.  Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2013;38(7):741-751.

    5. Tursi, A. Advances in the management of colonic diverticulitis. CMAJ. 2012, 184(13):1470-1476.

    6. Tursi, A. Efficacy, safety, and applicability of outpatient treatment for diverticulitis. Drug. Healthcare and Patient Safety. 2014; 6:29–36.

    7. Giaccari S, Tronci S, Falconieri M, Ferrieri A. Long-term treatment
    with rifaximin and lactobacilli in post-diverticulitic stenoses of the
    colon. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 1993;15(1):29–34

    8. Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti GM, Elisei W, Aiello F. Balsalazide
    and/or high-potency probiotic mixture (VSL#3) in maintaining
    remission after attack of acute, uncomplicated diverticulitis of the colon.
    Int J Colorectal Dis. 2007;22(9):1103–1108.

    9. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Health Implications of Dietary Fiber
    Judith A Marlett, PhD, RDa, Michael I McBurney, PhDb, Joanne L Slavin, PhD, RDc. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2002; 102 (7): 993–1000.

    10. Van Duny MA, Pivonka E. Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: Selected literature. J Am Med Assoc. 2000; 100: 1511-1521.

    Disclosures: Dr. Artemis Morris is on the advisory board for Bioimmersion, but is not receiving any monetary gain for writing this article.

    I hope you enjoyed and learned from Dr. Morris' article!

    Sincerely yours,

    Seann Bardell
    BioImmersion.com

    Clinical Note:

    Suggested use of the Beta Glucan High Potency Synbiotic: two tablespoons in a tall glass of water. Mix and drink.
    We have also found out from other doctors that adding the Phyto Power and/or the Blueberry Extract helps reduce inflammation in the gut. For extra fiber, the Energy Sustain is excellent! Take one heaping tablespoon in water. You may add it also to the Beta Glucan mix. The Energy Sustain is smooth to drink (like the Beta Glucan) and is gluten free.

    This amazing little creature is a Fennec Fox who lives, as a nocturnal animal, in “of all places” the Sahara Desert.

    The Last Quiz Answer:

    Humpback whales are known for their magical songs and their magnificent breaching into the blue skies of Hawaii. It is most likely that humpbacks sing to communicate with others and to attract potential mates.  Could they also be showing off to their companions on how high they can fly.

    These amazing creatures feed on tiny krill, plankton and small fish.  They migrate annually from summer feeding grounds near the poles to warmer winter breeding waters closer to the Equator.  It a good time for us all to be in Hawaii.

    Females nurse their calves for almost a year, and calves do not stop growing until they are ten years old.  They can grow to 62 feet long and weight up to 40 tons.

     

     

    Green Facts

    Globe_Home 3
    It is truly shocking, the world we are creating for ourselves.  How much time do we truly have left?  Check this out:  Holding your breath in India.
  • LactORN's synergy with probiotics

    Dear Friends,

    The world of the human microbiome is a part of the leading edge in medical research today.  Understanding the synergy between our human cells and our human friendly microbial cells is growing rapidly. The goal is achieving better health.

    We have taught the importance of adding good probiotic bacteria and more fiber to our diet for over thirty years, with the aim of bridging the gap between the scientific research community and the practicing physician.

    The Bioimmersion Therapeutic Food line is still a new medical framework. We use advanced technology that maintains the wholeness of foods for therapeutic purposes. Research demonstrates that foods behave medicinally in the body—repairing, healing, protecting and preventing. Our purpose therefore is to produce concentrated, powerfully nutritious food supplements.

    We are very proud and excited to offer you our newest synbiotic formula—LactORN—and to educate you in how it beautifully fits in with our other very concentrated synbiotics, the Beta Glucan High Potency Synbiotic and the Supernatant Synbiotic.

    But first here are some helpful definitions:

    • Synbiotic- refers to any nutritional supplement that provides both probiotics and prebiotics.  All three products are synbiotic formulas.  They provide the synergy of pre and probiotics.
    • Beta Glucan- refers to the beta glucan soluble fiber that we derive from oat bran, that delivers many positive benefits. (see benefits below)
    • High Potency- refers to the high count of good bacteria (CFUs) that the Beta Glucan High Potency Synbiotic provides- approximately 100 billion per heaping tablespoon.
    • Supernatant- refers to inactive probiotic cell populations of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus and their metabolites.  (Discussed more fully below)
    • LactORN- refers to Lactobacillus oligoribonucleotides.  This is our newest offering and one we are calling the next generation probiotic.  (See discussion below)

    The History of BioImmersion Synbiotics

    The development of each BioImmersion product represents our working in collaboration and partnership with many scientists, farmers, manufacturing experts and health practitioners from all over the world. Three of our crown jewels in this exciting birthing process are:
    Beta Glucan High Potency Synbiotic, Supernatant Synbiotic and LactORN.

    The Big Three 3 2

    The Beta Glucan High Potency Synbiotic

    The content of this product is prebiotic and probiotic— good fibers and good bacteria.

    Its fibers are from three sources: organic chicory root, red beet root, and oat bran.  From the chicory we get the soluble fiber inulin which is very bifidogenic, the Bifidobacterium love it, and so do the Lactobacillus—they grow rapidly on it.  Yeast doesn't.

    10% of the oat bran is composed of the soluble beta glucan fibers.  They are a very viscous fiber and when taken with food will lower the glycemic load of the meal.  An obvious good thing for sugar challenged individuals.  Beta glucan fibers prime the GI tract immune system, they support in the prevention of mutation and cancer (Mantovani 2007), they lower bad cholesterol (LDLs), they create a matrix home for the good Lactic Acid Bacteria.

    The organic red beet root fibers are both soluble and insoluble.  The soluble fiber are broken down into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and the insoluble fiber stimulate peristalsis.  Plus the red beet root supplies betalain, a very powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant.

    The fermentation of the soluble fibers by the accompaning good bugs produces SCFAs. Butyric acid is use by the lining cells of the colon for energy and facilitating a healthy GI tract cell turnover which supports the prevention of leaky gut syndrome.  The propionic acid helps to curb the apetite thereby support weight loss.

    Now let's look at its good pedigreed bacteria.  They are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lacto-bacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Strep. thermophilus and Bifido longum.  This powerful collection of good bacteria we call our American Collection of Pedigreed strains. They are ATCC identified strains.  ATCC is the largest repository for good bacteria in the world.  Click here—Beta Glucan High Potency Synbiotic—for more on these good bacteria.

    The Supernatant Synbiotic Formula

    The content of this product is good bugs and supernatant—with just a little bit of fiber.

    The good bacteria are from our Bulgarian Collection of Pedigreed Strains and they are:
    Lactobacillus acidophilus (multi-strains), Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Strep. thermophilus and Bifidobacterium longum (multi-strains).

    To design this product, we worked together with our Bulgarian scientists. The research behind this product focused on helping hospital patients protect themselves from hospital generated infection like C. diff. caused colitis.

    It took our Bulgarian team 3/4 of a year to trial for the strains with the best hit against Clostrium and other problematic organisms.  This has been a tremendously successful product as it provides a specific protection against C. diff and general protection, as well as providing digestive enzymes, B vitamins, bacteriocins, biosurfactants, and protective colonizing ability.  Inulin is used as a carrier for these good bacteria

    What is supernatant?  It is the byproducts of bacterial fermentation that are normally disgarded when growing good bugs.  After growing and freeze drying our good bacteria for this product, we then take fresh broth and put a new culture of L bulgaricus and S. thermophilus in it.  This time we collect their metabolites and freeze dry them.  We then arrest the life of these two producing bacteria and mix the now inactiveated whole cells back in with their metabolite. This whole mixture is what we call supernatant. The whole dead cells stimulate in a good way the awakening of the GI tract immune cells; and, of course, the rest of the metabolites can benefit us right from the get-go of taking this product.

    For more on this product in the words of my lead Bulgarian scientist click here.

    LactORN: Lactobacillus ORNs

    This is the next generation probiotics.  It fits within the probiotic family, yet it provides a very different function and prupose.

    The focus of this product is the delivery of the Lactobacillus ORNs into the oral cavity.

    LactORN provides Lactobacillus casei plus its oligoribonucleotides (ORNs). We added the prebiotic inulin (derived from organic chicory root).

    What are the ORNs and why are they the "the next generation probiotic"?

    ORNs are the RNA fragments of varying lengths that naturally resides within the cytoplasm of all bacteria.  When a bacteria encounters a new environment like our mouth it releases its ORNs into the oral cavity.  This sends a message to the releasing bacteria to immediately divide and multiply in this new environment.  The ORNs themselves are stimulatory to our innate immune system in our mouth.

    ORNs help our immune system to be more alert to possible invasion by viral or bacterial pathogens, but they also help protect our immune system for overreacting.  They help in the restoration of an immune system compromise by stress.

    The optimal amount of ORNs is around 30 AUs (roughly comparible to 900 micrograms).  A cup of raw milk provides around 30 AUs of ORNs from the bacteria that is naturally present.  By the way, this product plus all of our synbiotic products are totally dairy and soy free.

    Now, why the next generation?  As I said above when we grow probiotics organisms for supplementation, normally the supernatant is not retained.  In the case of our Supernatant Synbiotic we do put back the supernatant but the ORNs are still damaged in the process so they don't have the same stimulatory effect as freshly released ORNs which is what the LactORN product provides.

    We have stayed true to the pioneering work of Marshall (2007) who researched the beneficial use of Lactobacillus casei oligoribonucleotides for over 20 years in many families of animal groups, from shrimp to fish, mice, pig, cows, and humans.

    ORNs are a very important new ingredient to be aware of for its powerful effect on the immune system.

    For more on the LactORNs click here.

    Between the Supernatant Synbiotic and the Beta Glucan High Potency Synbiotic you are offering to your GI tract microbiome 12 different strains of good bacteria.  By adding the LactORN at a dose of two level teaspoons a week you are supporting the maintenance of a strong immune system.  They all work beautifully together or individually as needed.

    • Mantovani et al. (2007). Beta Glucans in promoting health: PRevention against mutation and cancer. Mutation Research:658(3);154-161.
    • Marshall W. (2007). Oligoribonucleotides alert the immune system of animals to the imminence of microbial infections. US patent 7,189,834 B2

    Sincerely yours,

    Seann Bardell
    BioImmersion.com

    Clinical Note:

    Diversity of good GI tract flora is important. It helps our microbiome resistant phage attacts and the assaults of other pathogens. Diversity of probiotics offer multi-faceted benefits—helping with our digestion, protecting our GI tract membrane, keeping bad population of possible gut microbe at bay, adding genomic diversity and functionality to our body at large, helping with weight management, and more.

    This amazing little creature is a Fennec Fox who lives, as a nocturnal animal, in “of all places” the Sahara Desert.

    The Last Quiz Answer:

    This amazing creature is a Wild Dog of Africa- Lycaon pictus, which means painted wolf referring to their mottled coat of red, brown, black and white patches.

    They are also called Cape Hunting Dogs.  Not a dog you want to be hunted by, for they hunt their prey like a fine tuned military operation.

    These long legged canines have 4 toes per foot which is unlike other dogs which have 5.  They stand to about the height of a 6 foot person's waist and weigh around 75 pounds.

     

     

     

    Green Facts

    Globe_Home 3New Additions to The Tree of LifeDid you know that the biomass of the microbial world exceeds that of the plant and animal world combined (Hogan CM. 2010).  Click on the title above and see the amazing array of colored photos of newly discovered microbial creatures from the oceans of the world.  They too are effected by warming seas.
  • Activating Probiotics

    Dear Friends,

    How do ORNs "activate" probiotics and modulate the immune system of animals and humans?

    The LactORNs replace a nutritional ingredient lost in the Western diet due to all the processing of foods that we eat. Our bodies have evolved with ORNs from bacteria as an important component of our diet.  ORNs released in our mouth activate probiotics to grow and stimulates and balances our immune systems.  This has been shown in the immune systems of all animals tested—from shrimp to fish, mice, rats, pigs, cows, and humans (Marshall, 2007).

    As we have learned last week, our diets lack in sufficient amounts of ORNs because we do not eat fermented foods. Furthermore, most of the yogurts and fermented vegetables available to us lack ORNs. This means that we are seriously deficient in this important nutritional element that helps our bodies fight infection.

    All bacteria contain ORNs. Marshall (2007) has discovered that ORNs are small fragments of RNA weighing <10,000 Daltons. They are released immediately when bacteria are transferred from acidic culture media into saliva or pH neutral buffer.

    Mice fed free <10kDaONRs released by L. casei, prior to a lethal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are protected from toxic shock death.

    Exposure to <10kDaORNs stimulates innate and adaptive immune responses in hosts as diverse phylogenetically as teleosts and mammals.

    In-vivo studies with shrimp and cattle show protection against infections when fed with <10kDaORNs released by Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) bacteria and yeasts.

    The co-evolutionary release and immune modulation by exRNAs (external RNAs) appears to be well-conserved among the microbial and mammalian kingdoms.

    Diets of pasteurized and processed foods do not provide sufficient amounts of GRAS organisms to release the exRNAs that modulate an immune response, nor do typical probiotics or commercial yogurts.

    Since the discovery that eukaryotic cells release exRNAs that regulate expression of their genes as well as those of nearby cells, we felt it reasonable that a similar phenomenon might exist in bacteria and that the <10kDaORNs were exRNAs or transcriptional factors that control expression of their growth cycle genes.

    Through co-evolution, mammalian immune cells adapted a response to them.  In-vitro studies in humans as well as in-vivo studies in mice, shrimp, fish and cattle fed <10kDaORNs released by GRAS organisms significantly increased their protection against infection and the lethality of septic shock.

    The L. casei doesn't have to be cultureable but remains viable but if it is and enters a human mouth with a neutral pH of 7 then the bacteria accomplishes two things:  it will release its ORNs which stimulates the oral immune system to respond, and two, the release of ORNs causes an immediate cell division by those bacteria for whom the release of ORNs has occurred when they are returned to an environment rich in nutrients.

    If all the bacteria have not released their ORNs in the mouth, those that didn't will release them when they again reach an area with an alkaline pH such as the small intestines.  They start to divide and multiply with no lag time.  If the pH of the mouth is more acidic than 5, only 1/3 of ORNs will be released.  One can add the LactORNs to a baking soda drink (the formula can be found on the back of a box of Arm and Hammer baking soda and gargle to insure that all LactORNs are released.

    There is no toxicity to the ORNs.  They restore the immune system without causing chronic inflammation.  The cytokines released are IL-1, IL-6, IL-4 and TNF alpha.  To IL-1 and 6 control inflammation and IL-4 activates B-cells and antibody production.  IL-6 seems to protect the body from too much inflammation.  Overall low level of inflammation are incited to prepare the immune system for a more effective prevention of infection from bacteria and virus.

    Dosage:  Individuals taking prescription drugs should inform their doctors before taking LActORNS.  A restored immune systme may be more sensitive  to  the drugs and the prescription might need to be changed.   For example statins may be need to be lowered or eliminated and HBP medication may need to be reduced as well as blood thinners.

    Marshall W. 2007. Oligoribonucleotides alert the immune system of animals to the imminence of microbial infections. US patent 7,189,834 B2

    LactORNs 3

    Sincerely yours,

    Seann Bardell
    BioImmersion.com

    Clinical Note:

    Our LactORN is the only probiotic supplement in the market that specifically grows the ORNs. Take one level teaspoon two to five times a week, depending on the weakness of the immune system. Continue to take the one of the probiotics mixes for a diverse microbial support of the GI, such as Original, No 7, or Supernatant. Add fibers such as the Beta Glucan or Energy Sustain for even a greater nutritional support.

    LactORN Bottle
    ORN Supplemental Facts 2

     

     

    This amazing little creature is a Fennec Fox who lives, as a nocturnal animal, in “of all places” the Sahara Desert.

    The Last Quiz Answer:

    This stocky, robust water loving antelope is a waterbuck. Their calves begin to eat grass when they are very young, yet they are nursed for as long as 6 to 8 months. Waterbucks don't reach adult weight until about 3.5 years.

    They are a large antelope, can weigh as much as 660 lbs, at the shoulders be 4.5 feet tall, and with a body length of 7.9 ft.  Herds form up to 30 individuals.  They are known to live up to 18 years.  Here is a short video of a beauty

     

     

     

    Green Facts

    Here's more proof as to diet's influence over our maintaining a healthy microbiome throughout our life. Just look at the elderly.

    Claesson et al. (2012) state that, the gut microbiota composition correlates with diet and health in the elderly.  Their microbiota composition significantly correlates with measures of frailty, co-morbidity, nutritional status, markers of inflammation and with metabolites in faecal water.  The individual microbiota of people in long-stay care was significantly less diverse than that of community dwellers.  Collectively, the data support a relationship between diet, microbiota and health status, and indicate a role for diet-driven microbiota alterations in varying rates of health decline upon aging.

    Claesson et al. (2012). Gut microbiota composition correlates with diet and health in the elderly. Nature;488:178-184

  • ORNs- a missing ingredient in our diet

    Dear Friends,

    Our new LactORN probiotic supplement supports the restoration of an immune system compromised by stress, thereby increasing the ability of the body to fight infections.

    As we have learned last week, our diets lack sufficient amounts of ORNs because we do not eat fermented foods.  Furthermore, most of the yogurts and fermented vegetables available to us lack ORNs. This means that we seriously lack this important nutritional element that helps our bodies fight infection.

    Marshall (2007) findings indicate that with ORNs, we restore an immune system compromised by stress—our abilities to fight infections are enhanced.

    The field of psychoneuroimmunology has provided new insights to help understand the pathophysiological processes that are linked to the immune system.  Work in this field has established that psychological stress disrupts the functional interaction between the nervous and immune systems.

    Stress-induced immune dysregulation has been shown to be significant enough to result in health consequences, including reducing the immune response to vaccines, slowing wound healing, reactivating latent herpes-viruses, and enhancing the risk for more severe infectious disease.

    Kanfer et al, 2011 observed high Cortisols to DHEAS ratios in bereaved older adults.  High Cortisol to DHEAS levels is a stress marker.  Neutrophil superoxide production was significantly reduced among the bereaved when challenged with E. coli.

    The stress of bereavement exaggerates the age-related decline in HPA axis and combines with immune aging to further suppress immune function, which may help to explain increased risk of infection in bereaved older adults.

    Godbout and Glaser (2006) found that the stress of hostile marital relationship interaction showed a 60% reduction in wound healing repair, which was associated with a decrease in proinflammatory Cytokine IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-alpha at the wound site.

    Our immune system's job is to protect us from pathogenic microbes and toxins.  A weakened immune system leaves our bodies vulnerable to these pathogens and resulting infections.

    References:

    • Kanfer et al. (2011). Neutrophil function and cortisol:DHEA ratio in bereaved old adults. Brain, Behavior and Immunity. University of Birmingham, UK.
    • Godbout, J.P., & Glaser, R. (2006). Stress-induced immune dysregulation: implications for wound healing, infectious disease and cancer. J Neuroimmune Pharm;1:421-427.
    • Marshall, B

     

    LactORNs 3

    Sincerely yours,

    Seann Bardell
    BioImmersion.com

    Clinical Note:

    Our LactORN is the only probiotic supplement in the market that specifically grows the ORNs. Take one level teaspoon two to five times a week, depending on the weakness of the immune system. Continue to take the one of the probiotics mixes for a diverse microbial support of the GI, such as Original, No 7, or Supernatant. Add fibers such as the Beta Glucan or Energy Sustain for even a greater nutritional support.

    LactORN Bottle
    ORN Supplemental Facts 2

    This amazing little creature is a Fennec Fox who lives, as a nocturnal animal, in “of all places” the Sahara Desert.

    The Last Quiz Answer:

    This little beauty is a Africans Spring buck.  There are more than 70 antelope species roaming around on the African continent.  They range from very small, like the suni which is only 12 to 16 inchers tall, to large like the eland which is about 8 to 11 feet tall.  Think about that for a second.  That is tall!

    Africa is known as the land of the antilopes.  To address the diversity, scientists have grouped them into 7 groups:  the duikers, a group of small to medium sized antelopes;  the dwarf antelopes; the gazelles- they are medium sized;  the horse antelopes- these are large and very strong and muscular; the antelopes that have high shoulders, long and thin legs and long bushy tails and finally a group that has spiraled horns.  This curious friend is a Spring Buck.

     

     

    Green Facts

    Here's more proof as to diet's influence over our maintaining a healthy microbiome throughout our life. Just look at the elderly.

    Claesson et al. (2012) state that, the gut microbiota composition correlates with diet and health in the elderly.  Their microbiota composition significantly correlates with measures of frailty, co-morbidity, nutritional status, markers of inflammation and with metabolites in faecal water.  The individual microbiota of people in long-stay care was significantly less diverse than that of community dwellers.  Collectively, the data support a relationship between diet, microbiota and health status, and indicate a role for diet-driven microbiota alterations in varying rates of health decline upon aging.

    Claesson et al. (2012). Gut microbiota composition correlates with diet and health in the elderly. Nature;488:178-184

  • What is the missing ingredient in our probiotics?

    Dear Friends,

    Over the last two weeks we have been talking about our new product—LactORN: Lactobacillus ORNs—characterizing it two weeks ago as The Next Generation Probiotic and last week as The Most Important Nutrient Missing in our Diet.

    This week we will provide further illumination as to what ORNs are and how they benefit and protect our health.

    What are ORNs?

    ORNs (oligoribonucleotides) are the products of the destruction of ribosomal RNA, which occurs naturally with the slowing of bacterial growth. As exponential growth
    slows, ribosomal RNA is hydrolyzed, creating very acidic oligoribonucleotides, which accumulate in the cytoplasm.
    If the media outside the bacterial maintains the same acid pH then said bacteria stop growing, hanging on to their ORNs.

    Oligoribonucleotides are RNA fragments ranging from 1 to 30 nucleotides, which are resistant to further hydrolysis by RNase.  They reside in the cytoplasm of all bacterial cells. When a bacteria enters a new the cavity of the human mouth, (ideally with a pH betweem 6 to 8), the bacteria immediately releases its ORNs.

    This release of ORNs does not kill or injure the bacteria from which they were released, but rather assists them in establishing a colony in a new environment by increasing their rate of mutation and their growth.

    How do they work?

    The oligomeric fraction having a molecular weight of less than 10,000 Daltons (<10kDa) and, in particular, between 500 and 3,000 DA are readily absorbed, are non-toxic and both activate and modulate the immune system.

    Encountering neutral pH , such as the mouth will induce the release of these ORNs, which will serve to alert the host immune system in the mouth.  Embedded sentinel cells in the oral pharyngeal tissue, such as the macrophages, are activated to release cytokines at levels deemed helpful to combating infections and are also down-modulated to prevent over-activation. The circulating monocytes and macrophages, and B- and T-cells of the adaptive immune system are upregulated as well.

    Approximately twenthy different interleukins can be released modifying, amplifying, restricting and dampening messages as the system is stimulated.  For example by down-regulating the number of CD-14 and CD-16 receptors on the surface of the macrophage, the oligomers released by the bacteria help to ensure that the macrophage does not become over-activated by interleukins.

    The benefits provided by ORNs.

    The ORN<10kDa are a rich new source of natural, normally-occurring, co-evolutionarily evolved immune modulators that can be safely used to protect animals and humans from infections and the over-stimulation of their immune system.  In addition, this faction contains compounds that can be used to adjust the expression of individual surface receptors on macrophages to re-center a dysfunctional immune system.

    Marshall, W. (2010). Methods for the accumulation and retention of immune-enhancing, bacterial-derived ribonucleotides (ORN) in bacteria.  US patent No. US 7678557 B2.

    Sanders, ME. (2003). Probiotics: Considerations for Human Health. Nutrition Reviews; 61(3):91-99.

    Shanahan, F. (2004). Probiotics and the Immune Response: How Much Can We Expect? Journal of Gastroenterology and Nutrition; 39(3):748-749.

    LactORNs 3

    Sincerely yours,
    Seann Bardell
    BioImmersion.com

    Clinical Note:

    LactORN contains the probiotic Lactobacillus casei grown in a way to retain its natural oligoribonucleotides.  Plus it contains the prebiotic inulin derived from organic chicory root. Take one tsp 2 or 3 times a week for immune support.

    LactORN Bottle
    ORN Supplemental Facts 2

    This amazing little creature is a Fennec Fox who lives, as a nocturnal animal, in “of all places” the Sahara Desert.

    The Last Quiz Answer:

    This turtle is a sea turtle.  Unlike other turtles, sea turtles cannot retract their legs and head into their shells.  There are seven species in the world.  They can live 80 years.

    Green Facts

    Industrial Agriculture, Agroecology, and Climate Change

    Today it is becoming more and more evident that the major problems of our time — energy, the environment, climate change, food security, financial security — cannot be understood in isolation.  They are systemic problems, which means that they are all interconnected and interdepenent, and they require corresponding systemic solutions.

    If we changed from our chemical, large-scale industrial agriculture to organic, community-oriented, sustainable farming, this would contribute signifcantly to solving three of our biggest problems: our energy problem, our chronic disease problem, and our climate change problem.

    (A formative article by Fritjof Capra (2015), cofounder of The Center for Ecoliteracy, and author of such seminal books as: The Systems View of Life and The Tao of Physics.)

  • The Next Generation Probiotic- Part II

    Dear Friends,

    We lack one of  the most important nutrients in our diet.

    Certain good bacteria, grown specifically to preserve its Oligoribonucleotides (ORNs),  supply a missing important nutrient that stimulates our very immune system to be more alert and ready to protect us from possible pathogens; and accomplishing this without over-stimulating the immune system.  What are these nutrient elements, ORNs, and why are they missing in our diets?

    Oligoribonucleotides (ORNs) are fragments of genetic material, the RNA pieces that reside within the cytoplasm of all bacteria.  When we eat unprocessed, fermented foods (e.g., raw milk, vegetables etc.) in its natural state, bacteria and their ORNs comes along with the food. A cup of fermented raw milk may  contain as much as 30 AUs of lactic acid bacterial ORNs. Since we do not ferment raw foods, and typically wash away the ORNs in the production of probiotics, this missing ingredient has been costly to our health. We need ORNs as a natural part of our nutritional makeup.

    Arbitrary Units (AUs) are a unit of measurement to quanity ORNs.  I described in last weeks newsletter—The Next Generation Probiotic— how ORNs set off a chain reaction of beneficial events, initiated through our immune cells, first in our mouth, and then small intestines, that upregulate our immune system.  30 AUs of ORNs is sufficient to upregulate the human immune system through the oral cavity.  Our new LactORN provides 30 AUs of ORNs per one level teaspoon.

    LactORNs 3

    Sincerely yours,

    Seann Bardell

    BioImmersion.com

    Clinical Note:

    LactORN contains the probiotic Lactobacillus casei grown in a way to retain its natural oligoribonucleotides.  Plus it contains the prebiotic inulin derived from organic chicory root. Take one tsp 2 or 3 times a week for immune support.

    LactORN Bottle
    ORN Supplemental Facts 2

    This amazing little creature is a Fennec Fox who lives, as a nocturnal animal, in “of all places” the Sahara Desert.

    The Last Quiz Answer:

    Is this a two toed or three toed sloth?  There are two species of sloths: two-toed and three-toed.  Most are about the size of a small dog.  They can live up to 30 years, and live most all of those years up in the trees of the jungles of Central and South America.  They feed on fruit, leaves, buds, and young twigs.  Because of their slow metabolism they need to eat very little.  Some sloths stay in the same tree for years. This beauty is a two-toed sloth. 

    Green Facts

    What better way to connect with the heart of nature for us city dwellers than to connect with a video of Jane Goodall's work with Chimpanzees in Tanzania.
    Explore Gombo National Park with Goodall's beautiful narration.

  • The Next Generation Probiotic

    Dear Friends,

    The new product is here: LactORNs—the next generation in probiotics.

    New research indicates friendly bacteria of unprocessed fermented foods retain their oligoribonucleotides (ORNs) which are then released when eaten, because of the saliva's pH (Marshall, 2007). A chain of reactions then occures:

    Immune cells, imbedded in oral tissues, respond to these ORNs by releasing stimulating cytokines that restore the powers of the immune network.

    An alerted immune network successfully defends the host against chemical toxins, viruses and bacteria without side effects.

    Either before or during stress conditions a daily dose of ORNs will maintain or restore the animal and human’s immune system compromised by stress.

    At this point, the typical probiotics manufacturing process does not retain the bacterial ORNs, they are discarded with the supernatant. Most of you are familiar with our supernatant products, and understand the protective value that our Bulgarian scientists placed upon retaining the supernatant metabolites.

    In this new generation product, our focus is on the ORNs.

    You will notice a new unit of measurement on the label:  The right dose of ORNs is determined not by the animal’s body weight but rather by the number of immune cells in its mouth.  Therefore, Colony Forming Units (CFUs) are not used to determine the dose of ORNs.  The dose is based on the number of Arbitrary Units (AU) of ORNs released in the mouth. Research has determined that the optimal amount of AUs is different for each species of animal one is feediing.  For example the AUs for cattle is 10, for pigs is 2, shrimp even have their own unique AU as do laboratory mice and rats.  For humans the AU is 30. (Marshall, 2007).

    The development of ORNs starts with growing a selected strain of L. casei in a media that supports the retention of releasable ORNs.

    When the ORN concentration is maximum, the culture is freeze-dried in a manner preserving the ORNs of the Lactobacillus casei.

    The LactORN is a healthy addition to your existing probiotic supplementation. Think of it as your immune boosting tool. Across animal species, the LactORN has been shown to support immunes system competencies to prevent infections caused by viruses and bacteria. It also helps the body to protect itself from toxins (Marshall, 2007).

    Marshall W. 2007. Oligoribonucleotides alert the immune system of animals to the imminence of microbial infections. US patent 7,189,834 B2

    Sincerely yours,

    Seann Bardell
    BioImmersion.com

    Clinical Note:

    LactORN contains the probiotic Lactobacillus casei grown in a way to retain its natural oligoribonucleotides.  Plus it contains the prebiotic inulin derived from organic chicory root. Take one tsp 2 or 3 times a week for immune support.

    LactORN Bottle
    ORN Supplemental Facts 2

    This amazing little creature is a Fennec Fox who lives, as a nocturnal animal, in “of all places” the Sahara Desert.

    The Last Quiz Answer:

    There are 216 species of owls.  These two beauties are barred owls.  They are also know as hoot owls.  It is highly vocal and can be heard calling during the day and night.

    Their diet is diverse as they prey upon frogs, birds, rats, bats, mice, squirrels, snakes and insects. The barred is found through out most of North America, and a large part of the southern Provinces of Canada, living in deep, moist forests and woodlands.

     

    Green Facts

    Uprooting the Leading Causes of Death

    Death in America is largely a food borne illness, so says Dr. Greger, who offers practical advice on how best to feed ourselves and our families.

  • Diet shapes the gut microbiome

    Dear Friends,

    Reserach demonstrates that diversity within our GI tract microbiome has been greatly reduced. How does that effect our children's health?

    De Filippo et al. (2010) compared the fecal microbiota of European children to that of children from a rural African community.  The diets of the two groups differed greatly.

    The researchers enrolled 15 healthy children living in a rural village in Burkina Faso, Africa, and 15 healthy children living in an urban area of Florence, Italy.  All children were between the ages of 1-6 years.

    The diet of the African kids was predominantly vegetarian: low in fat and animal protein and rich in starch, fiber, and plant polysaccharides.  All food resource were completely produced locally, cultivated and harvested nearby their village.  Their diet consisted mainly of cereals (millet grain and sorghum), legumes (black-eyed peas), and vegetables.  Whereas the diet of the European kids was the typical western diet high in animal protein, sugar, starch, and fat. It was also low in fiber (from vegetables, legumes, whole grains).

    The gut microbiomes of the children differed greatly.  The African children had much greater microbial richness and diversity.  The researchers posited that exposure to the large variety of enviromental microbes associated with a high-fiber diet could increase the potentially beneficial bacterial genomes, enriching the microbiome; and that reduction in microbial richness is possibly one of the undesirable effects of globalization and of eating generic, processed (protein, fat, carbs), uncontaminated (with healthy bacteria) foods.

    De Fillippo et al. (2010). Impact of diets in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children form Europe and rural Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107(33), 14691-14696.

    Sincerely yours,

    Seann Bardell
    BioImmersion.com

    Clinical Note:

    While certain bacterial families have developed resistance to antibiotics and have increased in our gut, other beneficial bacterial families decreased. This is of great medical concern.

    The Supernatant Synbiotic Formula was developed to support the gut, helping to protect it from nosocomal infections. Nococomal infections are those illnesses that one can get while staying in a health care facility from drug resistant bacteria, such a C. difficile.

    We put our Bulgarian scientists to the task of selecting strains of lactic acid bacteria that demonstrate the best inhibitory effect against Colostridial population.  It took them almost one year of work.  The results was the Supernatant Synbiotic Formula supplying a broad spectrum of powerful and safe probiotic organisms.  We have had wonderful feedback regarding this products efficacy.  This amazing little creature is a Fennec Fox who lives, as a nocturnal animal, in “of all places” the Sahara Desert.

    The Last Quiz Answer:

    The Koala is the only mammal which can survive on a diet of eucalyptus leaves.  Eucalyptus leaves are very fibrous and low in nutrition, and are extremely poisonous.

    Koalas have evolved a range adaptation to survive such a diet.  One is the microbial fermentation of the partially digested eucalyptus leaves.  In Barker et al (2013) study researchers found a highly complex and diverse ecosystem with considerable variation at the genus level.  The samples were dominated by sequences from the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla. (Barker et al. 2013. Investigation of the Koala hindgut microbiome via 16 S pyrosequencing. Vet Microbio, 167(3-4), 554-64.

    Green Facts

    The importance of diversity of species in all life forms as to their survivability shows up in many living examples.  In the latest, May 2015 Science American with the cover story, The Rise of the Tyrannosaurus, author American Paleontologist Stephen Brusatte states that this class of animals were extremely successful because of their great diversity of species.  Here's his inspiring lecture: Meet the new Tyrannosaurs.

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